The Process of Communication

By Vikas Mehra May 12, 2019

The communication process is cyclical and refers to the transmission of a message, verbal or nonverbal, from the sender through a selected channel to the receiver overcoming barriers that can have impact on how well the message is received.

Following are essential components of the communication process:

Source: "The mathematical theory of communication" copyright 1949, 1998 by the board of trustees of University of Illinois


The sender is the initiator of the message that need to be transmitted. This idea that the sender wants to transmit can be to inform or persuade the receiver for some action. As the source of the message, sender needs to be clear about why S/he is communicating, and what needs to be communicated. Sender should ensure the usefulness and accuracy of the information to be shared. Sender should also work on removing the barriers that might be there during transmission of the message


The message is the idea or information that you want to communicate. Message can be in two forms


Written and Spoken. For example, presentation, email, announcement etc.


Through gestures, eyes, face expressions, tone, pitch, rate of speech, pictorial or symbolic, etc.


Encoding is structuring the message, verbally or non-verbally, keeping in mind the situation, audience analysis, cultural sensitivities etc. Encoding is an important step in the communication process as wrong and inappropriate encoding may reduce the efficacy of the communication process. Accurate message structuring is very important to ensure correct decoding at the other end.


Channel refers to the way or mode the message is transmitted through. Messages can be conveyed verbally (e.g. face-to-face meetings, telephone and videoconferencing) or in writing (e.g. letters, emails, memos, and reports). Every channel has its strengths and weaknesses. For example, it's not effective to give a long list of directions verbally, while it is not appropriate to criticize someone strongly using an email as channel


Decoding is conversion of the sent message into an interpretable form. It simply means comprehending the message. The receiver after receiving the message interprets it and tries to understand it in the best possible manner. Successful Decoding is an important skill as successful Encoding is. Decoding errors can cause confusions. This is particularly the case when the decoder doesn't have enough knowledge to understand the message or has preconceived opinions about the sender


Receiver is a person or group, whom the message is transmitted for. S/he may be a listener, a reader or a viewer. Receiver’s accuracy in decoding the message depends on his/her knowledge of the subject, experience and relationship with the sender. The receiver is as significant a factor in communication process as the sender is. The receiver should be in fit condition to receive the message, that is, he/she should have channel of communication active and should not be preoccupied with other thoughts that might cause him/her to pay insufficient attention to the message.


Feedback is a very important component of communication process. Feedback is the response of the receiver to the message sent by the sender. Feedback conveys if the message was effectively encoded, sent, decoded and understood. It is the final step of the communication process and communicates that the receiver has received the message in its letter and spirit. Feedback is instrumental to make communication effective and purposeful.

Feedback can be verbal or nonverbal. Feedback needs to be paid close attention, as it is the only thing that allows the sender to be confident that your audience has understood the message. If sender finds that there has been a misunderstanding, then he has the opportunity to send the message again


The situation in which the message is delivered is the context. This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (corporate culture, international cultures, and so on)

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07-Jan-2019 11:54 AM


thanks for the post


09-Feb-2019 11:18 PM


Good work. Keep it up